Psychological and social analysis of collective trauma: the enduring lessons learned 20 years after the September 11th, terrorist attacks
Palavras-chave:Teoria histórico-cultural, Política de identidade, Fundamentalismo religioso.
Incidents that have a fatal impact on civilians have historically had a long-lasting impact on the psyche of those who witnessed it. The politicized September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States has been the most significant historical event of the 21st century, with major global consequences. The ongoing threats of terrorism the 9/11 incidents initiated have transformed public attitudes, socially and politically, and impacted the way people have related to one another both within the United States and globally. This paper critically examines the (i) enduring lessons learned 20 years after the tragic incidents of 9/11; (ii) global psychological response to 9/11 from a cultural-historical perspective; (iii) the broader social and socio-political impacts; interplay between identity politics, national security concerns and risks, prejudice, exclusion, and religious intolerance the events have triggered within the United States and globally; and how social media, fast information, and fake news have influenced critical thinking globally. The paper particularly explores how 9/11 could potentially impact an individual’s propensity for religious fundamentalism and prejudice and intolerance towards those who are unfamiliar.
Acim, R. Islamophobia, racism and the vilification of the muslim diaspora. Islamophobia Studies Journal, v. 5, n. 1, p. 26-44, 2019. https://doi.org/10.13169/islastudj.5.1.0026
Alnajjar, A.; Elhammoumi, M. The generation of higher mental functions in Vygotsky’s concepts of development and contradiction. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, v. 7, n. 18, p. 96-101, 2017. Available from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/234676094.pdf. Cited: Feb. 1, 2021.
Altheide, D. Moral panic: from sociological concept to public discourse. Crime Media Culture, v. 5, n. 1, p. 79-99, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741659008102063
Alshammari, D. Islamophobia. International Journal of humanities and Social Science, v. 15, n. 15, p. 177-80, 2013.
Beydoun, K. A. American islamophobia: understanding the roots and rise of fear. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2018.
Boscarino, J. A.; Adams, R. E.; Galea, S. Alcohol use in New York after the terrorist attacks: a study of the effects of
psychological trauma on drinking behavior. Addict Behav, v. 31, n. 4, p. 606-621, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.05.035
Brinson, M.; Stohl, M. From 7/7 to 8/10: media framing of terrorist incidents in the United States and United Kingdom. In: Canter, D. (org.). The faces of terrorism: multidisciplinary perspectives. Chichester: Willey Blackwell, 2009. p. 227-244.
Chowanietz, C. Rallying around the flag or railing against the Government? political parties’ reactions to terrorist acts. Party Politics, v. 17, n. 5, p. 673-98, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068809346073
Critcher, C. For a political economy of moral panics. Crime, Media, Culture, v. 7, n. 3, p. 259-75, 2011.
Dennis, E. Promoting peace amid the terror: the work of the ahmadiyya in Miami. 2018. Thesis (Master of Arts) – Florida International University, Miami, 2018. Available from: https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/3743. Cited: Feb. 1, 2021.
Donohue, L. K. Transplantation. In: Ramraj, V. V. et al. (org.). Global anti-terrorism law and policy. New York:Cambridge University Press, 2012. p. 67-88. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139043793.005
Douglas, R. N. Law, liberty, and the pursuit of terrorism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014.
Fairbrother, G. et al. Unmet need for counseling services by children in New York City after the attacks on the World Trade Center: implications for pediatricians. Pediatrics, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1367-1374, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.113.5.1367
Fleer, M.; González-Rey, F.; Veresov, N. (ed.). Perezhivanie, emotions and subjectivity: advancing Vygotsky’s legacy. Singapore: Springer, 2017. (Perspectives in Cultural-historical Research, v. 1). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4534-9
Fog, A. Warlike and peaceful societies: the interaction of genes and culture. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2017. https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0128
Fortna, V. P. Do terrorists win? Rebels’ use of terrorism and civil war outcome. International Organization, v. 69, n. 3, p. 519-56, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0020818315000089
Green, M. How 9/11 changed America: four major lasting impacts (with lesson plan). KQED News The Lowdown,
Available from: https://www.kqed.org/lowdown/14066/13-years-later-four-major-lasting-impacts-of-911. Cited: Feb. 1, 2021.
Green, T. H. The fear of Islam: an introduction to islamophobia in the West. Minneapolis: Fortress press, 2019.
Hakim, N. H.; Molina, L. E.; Branscombe, N. R. How discrimination shapes social identification processes and wellbeing among Arab Americans. Social Psychological and Personality Science, v. 9, n. 3, p. 328-337, 2018. https://
Hirsch-Hoefler, S. et al. Conflict will harden your heart: exposure to violence, psychological distress, and peace barriers in Israel and Palestine. British Journal of Political Science, v. 46, n. 4, p. 845-59, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007123414000374
Hirst, W. et al. A ten-year follow-up of a study of memory for the attack of September 11, 2001: flashbulb memories and memories for flashbulb events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, v. 144, n. 3, p. 604-23, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000055
Human Rights Watch. Illusion of justice: human rights abuses in US terrorism prosecutions. New York: Columbia Law School, 2014. Available from: https://www.hrw.org/report/2014/07/21/illusion-justice/human-rights-abusesus-terrorismprosecutions. Cited: Feb. 1, 2021.
Institute for Economic and Peace. Global Terrorism Index 2017. New York: Global Terrorism Index, 2017. Available from: https://globalterrorismindex.org/. Cited: Apr. 1, 2018.
Jackson, R. et al. Terrorism: a critical introduction. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Krause, P. The political effectiveness of non-state violence: a two-level framework to transform a deceptive debate. Security Studies, v. 22, n. 2, p. 259-94, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1080/09636412.2013.786914
Luminet, O. et al. The cognitive, emotional, and social impacts of the September 11 attacks: group differences in memory for the reception context and the determinants of flashbulb memory. Journal of General Psychology, v. 131, n. 3, p. 197-224, 2014. https://doi.org/10.3200/GENP.131.3.197-224
Mardikian, J. Mental health consequences of September 11: a five-year review of the Behavioral Sciences literature. New Jersey: Rutgers University Libraries, 2007. https://doi.org/10.7282/T3445JWW
Mayer, J. The dark side: the inside story of how the war on terror turned into a war on American ideals. New York: Doubleday, 2008.
Moghadam, A. Failure and disengagement in the red army Faction. Studies in Conflict: Terrorism, v. 35, n. 2, p. 156-81, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2012.639062
Molina, L. E.; Phillips, N. L.; Sidanius, J. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, v. 21, n. 2, p. 225-236, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037880
Nacos, B. L.; Bloch-Elkon, Y.; Shapiro, R. Y. Selling fear: counterterrorism, the media, and public opinion. Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 2011. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226567204.001.0001
Prestes, Z.; Tunes, E.; Nascimento, R. O. Lev Semionovitch Vigotski: um estudo da vida e da obra do criador da psicologia histórico-cultura. In: Longarezzi, A. M.; Puentes, R. V. (org.). Ensino desenvolvimental: vida, pensamento e obra dos principais representantes russos. Uberlândia: Edufu, 2013.
Runnymede, T. Islamophobia: a challenge for Us all. Runnymede Trust Publications and Resources, 1997. Available
from: https://www.runnymedetrust.org/companies/17/74/Islamophobia-A-Challenge-for-Us-All.html. Cited: June 21, 2018.
Said, E. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.
Schmitt, M. T. et al. The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: a meta-analytic
review. Psychological Bulletin, v. 140, n. 4, p. 921-948, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035754
Shinar, D.; Bratic, V. Asymmetric war and asymmetric peace: real realities and media realities in the Middle East and the Western Balkans. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, v. 3, n. 2, p. 125-42, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1080/17467586.2010.531034
Speckhard, A. Talking to terrorists: understanding the psycho-social motivations of militant Jihadi terrorists, mass hostage takers, suicide bombers, martyrs. Mclean: Advances Press, 2012.
Statista Research Department. Terrorism-number of fatalities worldwide 2006-2019. New York: Statista Research
Department, 2020. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/202871/number-of-fatalities-by-terroristattacks-worldwide/. Cited: Dec 1, 2020.
Stein, B. D. et al. A National longitudinal study of the psychological consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks: reactions, impairment, and help-seeking. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, v. 67,
n. 2, p. 105-117, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1521/psyc.220.127.116.11964
Stuber, J. et al. Was there unmet mental health need after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, v. 41, p. 230-240, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-005-0022-2
Torabi, M. R.; Seo, D. C. National study of behavioral and life changes since September 11. Health Education and
Behavior, v. 31, n. 2, p. 179-192, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198103259183
Veresov, N. Introducing cultural historical theory: main concepts and principles of genetic research methodology.
Cultural-Historical Psychology, v. 6, n. 4, p. 83-90, 2010. Available from: https://psyjournals.ru/en/kip/2010/n4/
Veresov.shtml. Cited: Feb. 1, 2021.
Veresov, N. Experimental-genetic method and psychology of consciousness: in search of the lost (Part Two). Cultural-Historical Psychology, v. 11, n. 1, p. 117-126, 2015. Available from: https://research.monash.edu/en/publications/experimental-genetic-method-and-psychology-of-consciousness-in-se-2. Cited: Feb. 1, 2021.
Vygotsky, L. S. The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky: The history of the development of higher mental functions. New York: Springer, 1997. v. 4, p. 97-120.
Vygotsky, L. S. The problem of the environment. In: Van der Veer, R.; Valsiner, J. (ed.). The Vygotsky reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. p. 338-354.